15 most exciting scientific discoveries that have been made over the past year
Each year brings new technologies and new discoveries to the world, which bring humanity to a qualitatively different, higher level of development. We have collected in one review the latest discoveries from various fields, and each of these discoveries for humanity is a step towards new opportunities.
1. A terrible disease will help to cure cancer
Scientists have made a breakthrough in finding a cure for cancer by attaching malaria proteins to cancer cells. Human trials should begin within four years.
2. new humanoid species have been discovered In South Africa
Last September, paleontologists reported that a new humanoid species, Homo naledi, had been found. This conclusion is based on the discovery of fifteen partially preserved skeletons. It is believed that Homo naledi may have lived in Africa about three million years ago.
3. Research has shown that if you work longer, the risk of stroke increases
According to a study published in the Lancet, people who work more than 55 hours a week have a 33% higher chance of having a stroke than those who work 35-40 hours a week. They also have a 13% higher risk of coronary heart disease.
4. Was first completed a comprehensive analysis of the genome of the woolly mammoth
At the same time, a number of reasons were discovered that allowed these animals to survive in the Arctic.
5. the brightest galaxy in the Universe was discovered
Last may, NASA reported that the brightest galaxy in the Universe, WISE J224607.57-052635.0, was discovered. it is smaller than the milky Way, but emits ten thousand times more energy (mostly in the form of infrared radiation).
6. Scientists have made progress in creating the first quantum computer
Two important steps in creating a quantum computer were taken by IBM scientists. They were able to find a way to detect and measure both types of quantum errors. A square lattice of four superconducting qubits on a chip slightly larger than 6 mm was also created.
7. Found the first exoplanet with a spectrum of visible radiation
Astronomers from Chile have made the first direct observation of the spectrum of visible light reflected from an exoplanet. We are talking about the exoplanet 51 peg b.
8. Three thousand atoms were captured using a single photon
Physicists from the Massachusetts Institute of technology and the University of Belgrade have developed a new technique by which they were able to capture three thousand atoms using just one photon.
9. Amazon Forests have begun to absorb less carbon dioxide
The results of a long 30-year study of the South American rainforest, in which an international team of almost 100 researchers participated, published rather disappointing data. Rainforests are gradually losing their ability to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as trees die at an increasingly rapid rate.
10. NASA has discovered evidence of a vast ancient ocean on Mars
According to NASA scientists, a huge ancient ocean once covered almost half of the Northern hemisphere of Mars, making the planet a more promising place to search for alien life than previously thought. The huge ocean, according to scientists, was up to one and a half kilometers deep and contained a total of twenty million cubic kilometers of water (more than in the Arctic ocean).
11. Researchers used nanotechnology to treat breast cancer
Iranian nanotechnologists have managed to synthesize a substance with a bioadaptive and biodegradable molecular chain. This medicine can reduce the level of toxicity of anti-cancer drugs.
12. Scientists reprogrammed plants for drought resistance
Scientists have genetically reprogrammed plants to be more resistant to drought.
13. HIV Vaccine
The fight against HIV and AIDS took a huge step forward in 2015, when scientists at the SCRIPPS research Institute developed a vaccine that proved incredibly effective against HIV-1, HIV-2, and the monkey immunodeficiency virus. The main difference of the new drug is that it actually changes the DNA to fight the virus. Previously, the patient’s body was injected with a weakened form of the virus, so that the immune system “learned” to fight it. The research is currently at an early stage, but the preliminary results are very promising.
14. Brain research may help predict future behavior
A paper published in the journal Neuron described a number of recent studies showing that brain scans can help predict a person’s future learning, criminal tendencies, and health-related behaviors. Technology can offer opportunities to personalize education and clinical practice.
15. in the laboratory, for the first time, human muscles were grown that could contract
In a lab at Duke University, researchers have grown human muscles that are able to contract and respond to external stimuli (such as electrical impulses, biochemical signals, and pharmaceuticals) just like real muscles. The new tissue should soon allow researchers to test new drugs and study muscle diseases outside the human body.