4 non-proprietary inventions that saved millions of human lives and did not bring their creators a penny
Four inventions without a patent that saved millions of lives.
I wonder what modern medicine would be like if it weren’t for these four inventions. To date, they have already saved millions of lives. It is really interesting that the creators of all these things did not earn a single penny on their creations. And while the “patent wars” do their best to slow down progress, but enrich the best minds, the creators of these things have given up wealth for the benefit of all mankind.
1. X-raysIn 1985, wilhem Conrad Roentgen, a Professor at the University of würzburg, conducted experiments in his laboratory with electric discharge in gases. To do this, he used a special glass tube with soldered electrodes. During the experiment, the scientist drew attention to a strange phenomenon.
The tube was wrapped in black paper that blocked out the light. Despite this, small crystals of barium salt, which were very close, gave off a glow. The glow disappeared only when the scientist stopped applying voltage to the tube.
It was then that Conrad Roentgen realized that he had discovered a new type of radiation, but he could not explain its nature. Other scientists did this later. However, he thought of installing a plate covered with barium salt in front of the tube. Before this plate, the scientist began to put various objects. As a result, the shadow of an object began to “fight back” on the plate, the saturation of which was determined by the density of the object. Then the scientist put his hand down and saw the shadow of his own bones on the plate!
A German scientist dubbed the grey creation X-rays. He was the first physicist to win the Nobel prize for his discovery. By the way, he gave it to his University. The scientist also refused the patent, wishing to transfer the “magic rays” to the property of mankind.
2. The polio vaccine
In 1948, the national Foundation for childhood paralysis of the United States funded a project to determine the number of polio viruses. The Jonas Salk group participated in this project. In the course of work, the scientist realized that he could implement a much more important task, to create a vaccine against a dangerous disease. The project later became truly international. They worked on it not only in the USA, but also in the USSR. However, the first vaccine was created by Salk. The scientist refused the patent for his development. When questioned by reporters on this issue, he only asked them if they would agree to have someone patent the Sun?
It’s hard to believe, but one of the most important medical discoveries of the twentieth century was made through disorder. In 1928, Alexander Fleming returned from a month’s vacation with his family to his laboratory, where he left a real mess. When the scientist began to restore order before starting work, he drew attention to the forgotten cultures with Staphylococcus in the corner. On one of those records, strange mushrooms have grown. After studying the find, the scientist realized that this mysterious mold killed all the bacteria in the place where it grew.
A year later, Fleming was able to isolate a substance from the mold that had incredible antibacterial properties. At first, the scientist considered penicillin exclusively as a means for local application. Fleming did not think about the fact that the drug can be injected into the body, and it will kill all the dangerous bacteria in it, circulating with the blood!
Scientists Ernst Boris Chein and Howard Florey completed their work on the creation of an antibiotic. In 1945, all three received the Nobel prize. By the way, Fleming, as the Creator of penicillin, refused the patent. Just before the start of world war II, the scientist sold the rights to penicillin to the United States and great Britain for a symbolic $ 1. He was convinced that a drug that could save millions of lives should not be a source of personal enrichment for anyone. This step allowed us to quickly establish mass production of the drug and save hundreds of thousands of lives of soldiers during the war.
4. A cure for diabetes
In 1921, a young novice scientist Frederick Bunting from Canada was very much interested in the works of Leonid Sobolev, who in 1900 came up with how to isolate a substance in the stomach of dogs that helps reduce blood sugar. Subsequently, Bunting was able to get a laboratory for himself at the University of Toronto. They even agreed to give him an assistant, despite the fact that the entire faculty was skeptical of the young man’s endeavors.
However, in 1922, purified insulin was first obtained. At the same time, it was introduced to the first human patient. They were 14-year-old Leonard Thompson. A year later, Frederick Bunting won the Nobel prize. The scientist refused the patent for his invention, selling it for $ 1 to the University.
Each country has its own bright minds. To prove this, there are 6 domestic inventions that you can really be proud of without any “buts”.